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Ser Conjugation: How to Conjugate “To Be” in Spanish

The Spanish verb ser means “to be” and is an essential verb for all beginner students. The conjugation of ser in the present tense is: Yo soy (I am), tú eres (you are), él/ella/usted es (he, she is; you are), nosotros somos (we are), vosotros sois (you are) and ellos/ellas/usted son (they, you are).

Ser (to be) conjugation charts)

Ser is an irregular ER verb. This means that both its stem and endings when conjugated in the present tense are different than other regular ER verbs. This page on our site covers Spanish ER verbs in detail.

Ser (to be) conjugation in the present tense.

In Spanish, there are two verbs for “to be”: ser and estar. The language uses ser to describe qualities which can be assumed to be permanent, such as relationships between people, nationalities, religions, profession, physical traits, etc.

The verb estar is used to describe temporary states, such as location and emotions. This page on our site covers the differences between ser vs. estar in detail. The page also covers the many usages of ser in detail.

This page on our site covers estar conjugation charts in detail and provides many example sentences.

On this page we provide conjugation charts for ser in ten major verb tenses.

  • Present tense (presente de indicativo)
  • Progressive present (presente progresivo)
  • Near future (futuro inmediato)
  • Future tense (futuro)
  • Preterite (pretérito)
  • Present perfect indicative (perfecto de indicativo)
  • Imperfect (imperfecto de indicativo)
  • Conditional (potential simple)
  • Present subjunctive (presente de subjuntivo)
  • Imperative mood (imperativo)

Ser conjugation table

Ser conjugation table

Forms of ser at a glance

The following graphic covers the verb ser in twelve tenses in the first-person singular (yo) form.

Ser (to be) conjugation in 12 tenses in the first-person singular (yo) form.

Ser conjugation charts

Present tense (presente de indicativo)

In the present tense, yo soy translates to “I am”. As mentioned above, Spanish uses ser for nationalities, professions, religions and physical characteristics.

yo soyI am Yo soy mexicano.I am Mexican.
tú eresyou areTú eres mi amigo. You are my friend.
él/alla, usted eshe/she is, you areElla es española.She is Spanish.
nosotros somoswe areNosotros somos médicos.We are doctors.
vosotros soisyou areVosotros sois cristianos.You are Christian.
ellos/ellas, ustedes sonthey/you areEllos son rubios.They are blond.

The following graphic covers ser in the first-person singular (yo) form for twelve verb tenses.

Progressive present (presente progresivo)

The progressive present combines the present tense of estar (also to be) with the present participle. Yo estoy siendo translates to “I am being”.

yo estoy siendoI am beingYo estoy siendo sincero.I am being sincere.
tú estás siendoyou are beingTú estás siendo fiel.You are being faithful.
él/ella, usted está siendohe/she is being; you are beingÉl está siendo justo. He is being fair.
nosotros estamos siendowe are beingNosotros estamos siendo impulsivos.We are being impulsive.
vosotros estáis siendoyou are beingVosotros estáis siendo bobos.You are being silly.
ellos/ellas, ustedes están siendothey/you are beingEllos están siendo simpáticos.They are being nice.,

Near future (futuro inmediato)

The near future tense uses the following construction: Present tense of ir (to be) + preposition a + infinitive. Yo voy a ser translates to “I am going to be”.

yo voy a serI'm going to beYo voy a ser un millonario.I'm going to be a millionaire.
tú vas a seryou're going to beTú vas a ser mi esposa.You're going to be my wife.
él/ella, usted va a serhe/she is going to be; you are going to beÉl va a ser un buen empleado. He's going to be a good employee.
nosotros vamos a serwe're going to beVamos a ser honestos. We're going to be honest.
vosotros vais a seryou're going to beVosotros vais a ser puntuales.You're going to be on time.
ellos/ellas, ustedes van a serthey/you're going to beEllos van a ser orgullosos.They're going to be proud.

Future tense (futuro)

In the future tense, yo seré translates to “I will be”.

yo seréI will beYo seré tu amigo.I will be your friend.
tú serásyou will beTú serás un buen empleado.You will be a good employee.
él/ella, usted seráhe/she/you will beElla será nuestra jefa. She will be our boss.
nosotros seremoswe will beNosotros seremos sus colegas.We will be your colleagues.
vosotros seréisyou will beVosotros seréis nuestros ayudantes.You will be our helpers.
ellos/ellas, ustedes seránthey/you will beEllos serán los voluntario.They will be the volunteers.

Preterite (pretérito)

The preterite is a commonly used past tense used to express past events which occurred at defined times. Yo fui translates to “I was”.

yo fuiI wasYo fui vendedor de zapatos.I was a shoes salesman.
tú fuisteyou wereTú fuiste el director.You were the manager.
él/ella, usted fueHe/she was; you wereÉl fue el jefe de la empresa.He was the company's boss.
nosotros fuimoswe wereNosotros fuimos amigos íntimos.We were good friends.
vosotros fuisteisyou wereVosotros fuisteis en España un vez.You were in Spain once.
ellos/ellas, ustedes fueronthey/you were Ellos fueron juntos durante cinq años.They were together for five years.

Present perfect indicative (perfecto de indicativo)

The present perfect indicative tense combines the present tense of haber (to have) with the past participle. The present perfect is used to describe past actions which have a bearing on the present. Yo he sido translates to “I have been”.

yo he sidoI have beenYo he sido un buen estudiante.I have been a good student.
tú has sidoYou have been Tú has sido mi amigo desde hace muchos años.You've been my friend for many years.
él/ella, usted ha sidoHe/she has been; you have beenÉl ha side un modelo a seguir por todos.He has been a role model for everybody.
nosotros hemos sidoWe have been Nosotros hemos sido competidor en el mismo sector.We've been competitors in the same industry.
vosotros habéis sidoYou have been Vosotros habéis sido un poco provocadores.You've been a bit provocative.
ellos/ellas, ustedes han sidoThey/you have beenEllos han sido muy generosos con los recién llegados.They've been very generous with the newcomers.

Imperfect (imperfecto de indicativo)

The imperfect tense is used to express past actions which used to happen over time. Yo era translates to “I was” and “I used to be”.

yo eraI was, used to beCuando era niño, esquiaba con mi hermana.When I was a child I used to ski with my sister.
tú erasyou were, used to beTú eras un chico muy chistoso.You were a very funny boy.
él/ella, usted erahe/she was, used to be; you were, used to beElla era una estudiante muy inteligente.She was a very intelligent student.
nosotros éramoswe were, used to beNosotros éramos colegas en la misma empresa.We used to be coworkers in the same company.
vosotros eraisyou were, used to beVosotros erais compañero de clase en la secundaria.You were classmates in middle school.
ellos/ellas, ustedesthey/you were, used to beEllos eran vecino en el barrio antiguo.They were neighbors in the old neighborhood.

Conditional (potential simple)

The conditional is used to express hypothetical actions. Yo sería translates to “I would be’.

yo seríaI would beYo sería profesor si fuera más inteligente.I'd be a teacher if I were smarter.
tú seríasyou would beTú serías papá si tuvieras una esposa. You'd be a dad if you had a wife.
él/ella, usted seríahe/she/you would beÉl sería rico si fuera más laborioso.He's be rich if he were more industrious.
nosotros seríamoswe would beNosotros seríamos más felices si viviéramos al campo.We'd be happier if we lived in the countryside.
vosotros seríaisyou would beVosotros seríais en forma si hicierais más ejercicio.You'd be in shape if you exercised more.
ellos/ellas, ustedes they/you would beEllos serían dispuesto si tuvieran un poco más tiempo.They'd be ready if they had a bit more time.

Present subjunctive (presente de subjuntivo)

The subjunctive mood is used for expressing wishes, emotions and doubts. Yo sea translates to “I am” or “I be”.

yo seaI amEs importante que sea muy atento.It's important that I be very vigilant.
tú seasyou areQueremos que seas más responsable.We want you to be more accountable.
él, ella, usted seaHe/she is; you areEs posible que él sea la persona adecuada.It's possible that he might be the right person.
nosotros seamoswe areÉl quiere que seamos listos en una hora.He wants us to be ready in one hour.
vosotros seáisyou areNecesito vosotros seáis más atentos.I need you to be more attentive.
ellos/ellas, ustedes seanthey/you areEstoy feliz que ellos sean tanto dispuestos a ayudar.I'm happy they're so willing to help.

Imperative (imperativo)

The imperative mood is used for giving commands and strong suggestions. The following chart only shows the conjugation of ser in the imperative. We’ve included sample sentences below chart.

Affirmative CommandNegative Command
¡sé!Be!¡no seas!Don't be!
usted¡sea!Be!¡no sea!Don't be!
nosotros¡seamos!Let's be!¡no seamos!Let's not be!
vosotros¡sed!Be!¡no seáis!Don't be!
ustedes¡sean!Be!¡no sean!Don't be!


  • ¡Sé paciente! Be patient!
  • ¡No seas celoso! Don’t be jealous!
  • ¡Seamos cuidadoso! Let’s be careful!
  • ¡no sean estúpidos! Don’t be stupid!

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David Issokson