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Estar Conjugation in Spanish

How to conjugate estar

Estar (Meaning: To be) is one of the most important verbs in the Spanish language. The conjugation of estar in the present tense is: Yo estoy (I am), tú estás (you are), él/ellá/usted está (he/she is, you are), nosotros estamos (we are), vosotros estáis (you are) and ellos/ellas/ustedes están (they/you are).

Estar conjugation charts

Estar is an irregular AR verb. This means that when conjugated in the present tense, it’s endings are different than other regular AR verbs, such as hablar (to speak).

This page on our site covers the hablar conjugation charts in detail and this page covers AR verbs in detail.

Estar conjugation in the present tense

Estar conjugation in the present tense

To be in Spanish explained

Estar and ser both mean “to be” in Spanish. The language uses estar to describe temporary states such as feelings and location, while it uses ser to describe more permanent states such as one’s nationality, profession and physical characteristics.

This page on our site examines the differences between ser and estar in detail while this page provides detailed conjugation charts for ser.

Further down the page we provide conjugation charts with example sentences for estar in the following eight commonly used verb tenses:

  • Present tense (presente de indicativo)
  • Near future (futuro inmediato)
  • Future tense (futuro)
  • Preterite (pretérito)
  • Present perfect indicative (perfecto de indicativo)
  • Imperfect (imperfecto de indicativo)
  • Conditional (potential simple)
  • Present subjunctive (presente de subjuntivo)

Estar conjugation table

Estar conjugation table

Forms of estar at a glance

The following graphic covers the verb estar in twelve tenses in the first-person singular (yo) form.

Estar (to be) conjugation in 12 tenses in the first-person singular (yo) form.

Estar conjugation charts

Present tense (presente de indicativo)

In the present tense, yo estoy translates to “I am”. As stated above, estar is mainly used for temporary states: emotions and locations.

yo estoyI amYo estoy en la casa.I am at home.
tú estásyou areTú estás a Guadalajara.You are in Guadalajara.
él/ella, usted estáhe/she is; you areÉl está trabajando.He is working.
nosotros estamos we areNosotros estamos cansados.We are tired.
vosotros estáisyou areVosotros estáis satisfechos.You are full.
ellos/ellas, ustedes estánthey/you areEllos están comiendo.They are eating.

Near future (futuro inmediato)

The near future tense is formed with the following construction: present tense of ir (to go) + preposition a + infinitive. For example, yo voy a estar translates to “I’m going to be”.

yo voy a estarI'm going to beYo vo a estar cansado.I'm going to be tired.
tú vas a estaryou're going to beTú vas a estar feliz.You're going to be happy.
él/ella, usted va a estarhe/she's going to be; you're going to beÉl va a estar emocionado. He's going to be thrilled.
nosotros vamos a estarwe're going to beNosotros vamos a estar pendientes.We are going to be on the look out.
vosotros vais a estaryou're going to beVosotros vais a estar de vuelta. We are going to be back.
ellos/ellas, ustedes vanthey/you're going to beEllos van a estar ocupados.They are going to be busy.

Future tense (futuro)

In the future tense, yo estaré translates to “I will be”.

yo estaréI will beYo estaré con ustedes. I'll be with you.
tú estarásyou will beTú estarás en la escuela. You'll be in school.
él/ella, usted estaráhe/she/you will beElla estará sana.She'll be in good health.
nosotros estaremoswe will beNosotros estaremos enamorados.We will be in love.
vosotros estaréisyou will beVosotros estaréis enojados.You'll be angry.
ellos/ellas, ustedes estaránthey/you will beEllos estarán orgulloso de su éxito.They'll be proud of your success.

Preterite (pretérito)

The preterite is a commonly used past tense for completed actions. Yo estuve translates to “I was”.

yo estuveI wasYo estuve a Madrid.I was in Madrid.
tú estuvisteyou wereTú estuviste muy feliz.You were very happy.
él/ella, usted estuvohe/she was; you wereÉl estuvo a Buenos Aires.He was in Buenos Aires.
nosotros estuvimoswe wereNosotros estuvimos en la casa. We were at home.
vosotros estuvisteisyou wereVosotros estuvisteis en la oficina.You were at the office.
ellos/ellas, ustedes estuvieronthey/you wereEllos estuvieron juntos.They were together.

Present perfect indicative (perfecto de indicativo)

The present perfect is a commonly used Spanish past tense which is used to express past actions which have a bearing on the present. It is formed by combining the present tense of haber (to have) with past participle. Yo he estado translate to “I have been”.

yo he estadoI have beenYo he estado muy ocupado este mes.I've been very busy this month.
tú has estadoyou have beenTú has estado trabajando en California.You've been working in California.
él/ella, usted ha estadohe/she has been; you have beenÉl ha estado bendito.He's been blessed.
nosotros hemos estadowe have beenNosotros hemos estado muy felices.We've been very happy.
vosotros habéis estadoyou have beenVosotros habéis estado en España desde hace un año.You've been in Spain for one year.
ellos/ellas, ustedes han estadothey/you've beenEllos han estado en contacto últimamente.They've been in touch recently.

Imperfect (imperfecto de indicativo)

The imperfect tense is another commonly used Spanish past tense used to describe actions occurred over time at non-specified times. Yo estaba translates to “I was” or “I used to be”.

yo estabaI was, used to beNo vine porque estaba cansado.I didn't come because I was tired.
tú estabasyou were, used to be¿Dónde estabas? ¡Te llamé tres veces!Where were you? I called you three times!
él/ella, usted estabahe/she was, used to be; you were, used to be¿Por qué estaba tan enojado?Why was he so angry?
nosotros estábamoswe were, used to beNosotros estábamos muy contentos con los resultados.We were very pleased with with the results.
vosotros estabaisyou were, used to beVosotros estabais muy tímidos.You used to be very shy.
ellos/ellas, ustedes estabanthey/you were, used to beEllos estaban el centro cuando llegué.They were downtown when I arrived.

Conditional (potential simple)

The conditional tense is used to describe hypothetical actions. Yo estaría translates to “I would be”.

yo estaríaI would beYo estaría feliz si ayudaras.I'd be happy if you helped.
tú estaríasyou would beTú estarías más tranquilo si tuverias más tiempo libre.You'd be more at ease if you had more free time.
él/ella, usted estaríahe/she/you would beÉl estaría más feliz si tuviera una novia.He's be happier if he had a girlfriend.
nosotros estaríamoswe would beNosotros estaríamos listos si tuviéramos más tiempo.We'd be ready if we had more time.
vosotros estaríaisyou would beVosotros estaríais con nosotros si no estuvieran con ellos.You'd be with us if you weren't with them.
ellos/ellas, ustedes estaríanthey/you would beEllos estarían celosos supieran como estoy viviendo.They'd be jealous if they knew how I'm living.

Present subjunctive (presente de subjuntivo)

The subjunctive mood is used to express wishes, emotions and doubts. Yo esté translates to “I am”. Que esté can translate to “that I be”.

yo estéI am Quiere que esté más serio en la vida.He wants me to be more serious in life.
tú estésyou areEs importante que estés listo.It's important that you be ready.
él/ella, usted estéhe/she is, you areNo pieno que él esté disponible.I don't think he's available.
nosotros estemoswe areNo piensa que estemos felices.He doesn't think we're happy.
vosotros estéisyou areEs dudoso que estéis a Valencia.It's doubtful that you're in Valencia.
ellos/ellas, ustedes esténthey/you areEs necesario que estén puntuales.It's required that they be on time.

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David Issokson